|This is not a joke by a blogger this is how Unilever advocates to use their Flora pro.active product to consumers, who "want to lower your cholesterol and follow a healthy diet and lifestyle."|
Aside from the fact that more often then not, the activity of those "active ingredients" is critically dependent on co-factors that are lost during the isolation and extraction processes, scientists from the Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Maastricht University Medical Center have now been able to show that the mere presence of the bulk in which plant sterols would come in the natural form is critically important to their effects.
Can you achieve a "healthily"(?) low cholesterol level by guzzling tuckloads of low-fat yogurt drinks!?
Based on the negative outcomes of previous studies into the benficial effect of "functional" foods or dietary supplements enriched in plant sterols, D. Keszthelyi had hypothesized that
"100 mL drink, when consumed before a meal, would empty fast from the stomach and would not sufﬁciently trigger gallbladder emptying, whereas ingestion with or after the solid meal would enable the necessary physiological changes to aid inhibition of cholesterol absorption" (Keszthelyi. 2013)To test this hypothesis the researchers recruited a total of 12 healthy male subjects (age, 25 ± 3 years; BMI, 23 ± 2 kg/m²) who reported the scientists' lab on three separate test days with one-week washout between test days.
|Does the Paleo diet ruin your cholesterol levels as the conclusion to a recently published thesis would indicate (learn more)?|
- 45 min before (test condition A),
- during (test condition B), or
- 45 min after (test condition C)
he sequence of the test days had been determined by a random pre-selection prior to the start of the study. During each test day, gastric emptying of the test drink as well as the effect of the test drink on gallbladder volumes were determined (figure 1, left):
|Figure 1: Gastric emptying (left) and gallbladder volume (right) depending on the time of ingestion of a phytosterol containing yogurt drink (Keszthelyi. 2013)|
"Accepting the postulate that concurrent presence of PS with dietary and/or biliary cholesterol in the small intestine is an important mechanism for the LDL cholesterol-lowering action (Ostlung. 2004), a signiﬁcant stimulus leading to gall- bladder contraction with simultaneous delivery of the PS-containing food format from the stomach into the duodenum is required. It is therefore important to ascertain which stimuli are able to elicit this postprandial response to a sufﬁcient and desirable degree." (Keszthelyi. 2013)This is actually interesting, because in the end it means that cholesterol clearance, even when it's induced / supported by questionable supplemental phytoestrogens critically depend on fat intake! This in turn would explain why the rodents in the "optimal diabesity diet study" from one of the recent installments of the Short News found elevated cholesterol levels only in the high sugar and high fat + high sugar groups, yet not in the rodents on a high fat diet.
|If you want to do something for your blood lipids, you better eat more eggs than overpriced Frankenfood. The eggs will not only improve your cholesterol particle profile, the regular consumption of whole eggs will also increase HDL's ability to carry lipids out of the macrophages. If these accumulate, they will turn the macrophage into pro-atherogenic foam cells (learn more).|
- abortion of pregnancy in animal models (Burckh. 1982)
- reduced sperm concentrations & testis weights
- neg. effects on the vascular system (Boberg. 1991)
- increased intestinal tumor formation (Marttinen. 2013)
- Boberg KM, Pettersen KS, Prydz H. Toxicity of sitosterol to human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1991 Oct;51(6):509-16.
- Burck PJ, Thakkar AL, Zimmerman RE. Antifertility action of a sterol sulphate in the rabbit. J Reprod Fertil. 1982 Sep;66(1):109-12.
- Keszthelyi D, Knol D, Troost FJ, van Avesaat M, Foltz M, Masclee AA. Time of ingestion relative to meal intake determines gastrointestinal responses to a plant sterol-containing yoghurt drink. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Jun;52(4):1417-20.
- Ostlund RE Jr. Phytosterols and cholesterol metabolism. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2004 Feb;15(1):37-41.