|There are 1bn ways to prepare your eggs and the Internet is a rich source of recipes.|
In their recent experimental trial, Amy Miskimon Goss and colleagues investigated the effects of whole eggs, being consumed as part of a low carb diet on the diet-induced changes in body composition, body fat distribution and selected health parameters in aging men and women.
For their randomized clinical trial, Goss et al. recruited 26 men and women aged between 60 and 75yrs. All subjects had a baseline BMI within the "obese" category (30–40kg/m²) and were randomly allocated to consume either ...
- an egg-based lower-CHO/high-fat diet (EBD) containing less than <25% of the energy from carbohydrates, more than 50% from fat and 25% of the energy from protein, or
- a standard CHO-based/low-fat diet (STD) with equal amounts of protein (25%), but 55% of the energy from carbohydrates and only 20% from fat
|Figure 1: Overview of the macronutrient composition of the diets (Goss 2017).|
How did they lose weight if they didn't restrict their food intake? That all subjects lost significant amounts of body fat is a logical consequence of being provided with energy-sufficient meal plans thar reflect either a low-carb, high-fat or a high-carb, low-fat macro composition, when the baseline diet is an obesogenic Western Std. Diet with a high fat and high sugar content. In the absence of detailed food-logs to compare the pre-study intake with the food intake in the intervention study, we do yet have to base this assumption on previous evidence.As you can see in Figure 1 (and probably already expected in view of the 'ad-libitum' approach), the subjects on the egg-based low carb diet lost more body fat (11.0% vs. 2.3% total fat | p<0.01 for the difference between diets). Healthwise of even greater importance is that the EBD group also experienced ~3-fold greater loss in unhealthy visceral adipose tissue (aka 'organ fat') compared to the STD group (−23.3% vs −7.1%, p<0.01 for the difference between diets).
|Figure 2: Relative changes in total and visceral body fat as measured by DXA scans performed before and after an 8-week high-fat, low-carb (blue) vs. low-fat, high-carb (orange) intervention W/ dietary restriction (Goss 2017).|
And there's more new egg research... well, sort of "egg"
That adding eggs can do the most if you use them to replace refined starches and added sugar is also supported by another ahead-of-print paper. The 3-week cross-over (2-wk washout) study one comes from the Midwest Biomedical Research/Center for Metabolic and Cardiovascular Health Objective and evaluated the effects of a substituting refined starches and added sugars (16% of the total energy intake per day) with a combination of egg protein (Epro; 8% total energy intake) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs; 8% total energy intake) - which is basically a lower SFA version of eggs from free-ranging hens - on insulin sensitivity (primary outcome) and other cardiometabolic health markers in overweight or obese adults with elevated triglyceride (TG) concentrations.
As you can see in Figure 3, the twenty-five participants' [11 men, 14 women; mean ± SEM: age, 46.3 ± 2.4 y; body mass index (in kg/m²), 31.8 ± 1.0] Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (MISI) increased 18.1% ± 8.7% from baseline during the Epro and UFA condition and decreased 5.7% ± 6.2% from baseline during the carbohydrate condition (P < 0.001). Similarly, the disposition index (tests the function of the pancreas) increased 23.8% ± 20.8% during the Epro and UFA condition compared with a decrease of 16.3% ± 18.8% during carbohydrate (P = 0.042).
The choline advantage: One thing that clearly argues in favor of eggs, though, is that they are one of the best dietary sources of choline which is essential for your metabolic and cardiovascular health and a typical deficiency nutrient in "no egg"-diets (learn more). Furthermore, choline has been shown to promote fat loss when consumed in conjunction with caffeine and carnitine (see "Forgotten Dieting Aids") and stand-alone when it's taken during contest prep dieting (see "2g Choline Double Fat Loss").
|Choline is also essential if you want l-carnitine to actually work | learn why|
|Figure 3: Changes in glucose metabolism and blood lipids (as marker of heart health) in recent crossover study of the effects of replacing refined carbohydrates (16% total energy) with egg-wite + PUFA (Maki 2017).|
- Goss, Amy Miskimon, et al. "Effects of an Egg-based, Carbohydrate-restricted Diet on Body Composition, Fat Distribution, and Metabolic Health in Older Adults with Obesity: Preliminary results from a randomized controlled trial." The FASEB Journal 31.1 Supplement (2017): lb320-lb320.
- Hall, K. D. "A review of the carbohydrate–insulin model of obesity." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2017).
- Maki, Kevin C. et al. "Replacement of Refined Starches and Added Sugars with Egg Protein and Unsaturated Fats Increases Insulin Sensitivity and Lowers Triglycerides in Overweight or Obese Adults with Elevated Triglycerides." The Journal of Nutrition (2017) First published May 17, 2017, doi: 10.3945/ jn.117.248641
- Noakes, Timothy David, and Johann Windt. "Evidence that supports the prescription of low-carbohydrate high-fat diets: a narrative review." British Journal of Sports Medicine 51.2 (2017): 133-139.